- Economic systems should only have the goal to indefinitely increasing the Gross Domestic Product of a country?

 

- Is everything becoming something which can be sold and bought?

 

- The financial economy is necessary to guarantee that the real economy has sufficient resources to produce all the goods it produces. Is there a way to guarantee that the real economy can make all the necessary investments without the excessive risks and misbehaviours of the financial economy that today are under the eyes of everybody?

 

- Is marketing the “first cause” of both the real economy and the financial economy?

 

- Banks and financial organizations determine most of what happens in today’s world and they are becoming supranational entities that have more power than the states. What will be the consequences of this fact?

 

- Is modern economy becoming an economy in which information is the most important good? Is the science of economics prepared to deal with an information economy?

 

- Did the science of economics create modern economies? If this is true and if we want to change modern economies, how should the science of economics change?

 

- Marketing from an exclusively economic phenomenon has become an all-encompassing phenomenon which is transforming the entire society into a marketing society. With what consequences?

 

- How can we solve the conflict of interests which exists in many professions (economists, physicians, psychologists, teachers, journalists, media people, marketing people) that could help society to understand and solve many of its problems but prefer not to do so because this would go against their interests?

 

- The educational institutions as we know them are at the end of their long history. How can we construct a new system of education which is more at home with today’s society? What should be the role of the new digital technologies in this new system? Should we change not only how students learn but also what they learn?

 

- Are the new digital technologies creating a new “ecology of the mind” and a new social life? What are the consequences?

 

- What are the consequences of being able to construct artefacts endowed with a “mind” similar to the human mind and, therefore, with both a cognitive half and a motivational/emotional half? Should we construct such artefacts?

 

- Are computers changing how science is done?

 

- Are science and technology making human societies too complex for human beings to understand them?

 

- Can the development of technology be guided?

 

- Today a process of globalization is underway in the economic, technological, and cultural domains but political power continues to be in the hands of the states that remain local entities, and this asymmetry creates many problems. What should be done? Should we - and can we - arrive at a global sovereign state?

 

- Is it true that Western culture is becoming the culture of all human beings who live on the Earth? What will be the consequences of this global Westernization?

 

- Is it possible for a non-Western state to have individual freedom, to eliminate poverty, to recognize science as the best way to understand reality, to have a modern medicine and modern technologies and, at the same time, to preserve its traditional culture?

 

- Is it necessary that humans behave selfishly? How can we make them behave less selfishly?

 

- Will wars become things of the past?

 

- What are the causes of ethnocentrism as the tendency to behave differently towards the members of one’s group and towards the members of other group? How can we avoid the negative consequences of this tendency when globalization leads to an increase in the contacts between different groups?

 

- Behaviours that damage others play a very important role in human societies and, since human societies change always more rapidly, there are always new types of behaviours that damage others. How can we adapt our systems of laws so that they are able to deal with new forms of behaviours that damage others?

 

- Is punishing behaviours that damage others the only way to contain them?

 

- The impact of human behaviour on the environment is increasing and it represents a danger for human beings. How can we reduce this impact and its consequences?

 

- Cities change the way in which human beings live. What are the consequences of these changes? What can be done to avoid these consequences if they are bad?

 

- Is it possible to design a society in which women do not have less power than men without becoming men? Should women become soldiers or should they abolish wars?

 

- If Western societies have been created by men more than by women and if there is something wrong with Western societies, should men ask women to change Western societies?

 

- What should a society do with respect to the differences among individuals?

 

- Western culture is the culture of freedom. Are people living in Western-type societies really free?

 

- Freedom, understood as the complete absence of limitations on an individual, produces happiness for the individual?

 

- Adolescents today tend to reject all authority (of parents, teachers, adults generally, the past) and to grow up without any external “scaffolding” besides peers and the media. What are the consequences of this manner of growing up for adolescents and for the whole society? If some of these consequences are negative, how can we avoid them?

 

- How can we preserve the advantages of democracy and at the same time avoid its defects, such as the fact that political chiefs tend to do what voters want them to do and not to pursue the “common good”?

 

- Can human beings live in large communities without a “chief”?

 

- Can “bottom up” collective action change today’s societies?

 

- Can e-democracy replace representative democracy? Do human beings need to better know and understand reality for e-democracy to succeed?

 

- Is defending one category of human beings against another - the poor versus the rich, the weak versus the strong, those who do not have freedom against those who negate them freedom - a thing of the past because, today, all human beings have the same problems and they must be mostly defended from themselves?

 

- Is science is the only thing that makes progress because each day we know more about reality - in the sense in which science understands reality - while this is not necessarily true for technology because progress in technology means that technology lets us live a better life, and it is not always true that technology let us always live a better life?

 

- How can we solve the contrast between the fact that science and technology have an increasing impact on society and the fact that almost all the members of the society know little or nothing about science and technology?

 

- Those who govern human societies ignore most of the most serious problems that afflict human beings today. How can this be changed?

 

- Which new institutions should be created to help who governs the society to make a greater and better use of science and technology? Should these institutions include both the natural sciences and the behavioural and social sciences?

 

- What will be the future of art, religion, and philosophy?

 

- What we will be the future of the past?

 

- What will be the future of human beings? If we want to influence their future, should we look at Western culture as just one culture among others?

 

- Are human beings the culmination of a general process of evolution of reality or are they only one stage of this process? Can they predict what will be the next stage? Can they control what will be the next stage?

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